The Glorious Quran has been revealed by Allah SWT. All Muslims should recite it daily with beautiful voices. The purpose of Tajweed is to make the recitation of the Quran error-free because Arabic alphabets have different Makharij (articulation) and adjectives, it is important to know the position and point of each Arabic letter to recite the Quran correctly which is called as the Makharij. The word “Tajweed” means to improve, become better, enhance in good reciting. The word Tajweed comes from the Arabic root of ‘Jayyid’ which means making good or doing anything with high standard. By reciting the Quran with Tajweed beautify the recitation. Prophet Muhammad SAWW said:
“Adorn the Quran with your voices.”
In another narration Prophet Muhammad SAWW said:
“Beautify the Quran with your voices. Verily, a beautiful voice adds to the beauty of the Quran.”(Abu-Dawood)
Umm e Salma R.A -the wife of Prophet Muhammad SAWW- tells us about the recitation of Prophet Muhammad SAWW that:
“Clearly-distinguished, letter by letter”.
Allah SWT said in His Quran:
“…And recite the Qur’an with measured recitation.” [Al-Muzzammil:4]
RULES OF TAJWEED
The recitation of the Holy Quran has to be followed by the rules called “Tajweed Rules”. Reciting the Holy Quran with Tajweed is very important for all Muslims because Quran is recited in prayers which is the basic pillar of Islam. If we don’t learn Tajweed, we will do mistakes while reciting, this not only affects our recitation but also has an impact on our prayers. Prophet Muhammad SAWW teaches Quran recitation to Sahaba and they teach to their next generations, and this teaching continues till today after more than fourteen hundred years of the revelation of the Quran. Nowadays many devices and technologies are present in the market from which you can listen to Quran and make your Tajweed better but everybody who is learning the recitation should require a teacher to learn Quran from it. Nobody can rely on these technologies to learn Quran and replace the teacher.
Reading the Holy Quran is quite different from the reading of a normal Arabic text. Tajweed rules are followed while reciting the Quran but these rules don’t require reading Arabic text. As an example, consider the elongation of vowels that may vary from 2 and 6 times that of a single consonant depending on the context and the rule applying to it. There are two kinds of vowels in the Arabic language, short vowels that are placed either above or below the preceding consonant and long vowels that can be pronounced by the repetition of short vowels. Some rules of Tajweed are enlisted below.
- Types of nasalization called “Ghunnah”
- Some words in Arabic are heavy sounded and some are light sounded. Heavy sounds are called “Tafkheem” and light sounded are “Tarqeeq”. 6 letters in Arabic are pronounced heavily.
- Many types are there in Tajweed. Some stops with the breaking of the breathing and some stops are without breaking of breathing that is discussed in the chapter of “Waqf”.
- The degree of vibrations or unrest at the end of the word is called “Qalqalah” which means producing the striking echo sound voice stop consonants.
Rewards of learning Tajweed with difficulty:
At first, it is difficult to recite the Quran with all the rules of Tajweed. Everything in this world is difficult to start with but doing it regularly makes things easier as commonly said practice makes the man perfect. Tajweed is all about practicing day in and day out. If we practice the rule of Tajweed we will master it. As a beginner, if you are facing difficulty then don’t be disappointed by facing hardship. Prophet Muhammad SAWW said:
“Verily the one who recites the Quran beautifully, smoothly, and precisely, he will be in the company of the noble and obedient angels. And as for the one who recites with difficulty, stammering or stumbling through its verses, then he will have TWICE that reward.” (Sahih Al-Bukhari)
Scholars divided the mistakes that happen during the recitation of the Holy Quran into two categories. One is clear or major mistakes and the other is minor mistakes. Clear mistakes are the one that changes the meaning of the Quran and minor changes don’t have an impact on the translation of the Quran but the imperfect pronunciations are called Minor mistakes. Learning Tajweed to avoid the clear mistakes is obligatory (Fard al-ayn) to every Muslim and to avoid minor mistakes is a collective obligation (Fard al-kifayah) which means that someone has to learn Tajweed with perfection. Because Prophet Muhammad SAWW recited back to Jibraeel A.S with Tajweed and the Companions of Prophet Muhammed SAWW learn it with Tajweed rulings.
Examples of Major/Clear Mistakes:
- To replace one letter with another letter or to replace sort vowel (Harakah) into another one.
- Not doing elongation (Madd) at all while reciting it fastly or doing Madd on a place where doing Madd is not correct.
- Stopping a recitation on a place where stopping changes the meaning. Like stopping on “Laa Ilaha” which means “There is no Lord” with joining “Illal Allah” means “except Allah”
Examples of Minor Mistakes:
Minor Mistakes are many, some of them are listed below.
- Elongation is not appropriately done. More elongation did where it isn’t required and short elongation did where more elongation is required.
- Not pronouncing the word from the point it should be pronounced like the word “Raa”
- Some words change their pronunciation when comes with another word. Don’t take notice of this thing.
- Making sounds of light letter, heavy or vice- versa.
Ways of learning Tajweed:
The easiest way to learn Tajweed is to join the classes in the Masjid or Madrasah which is near to your house. Reciting the specialized Qari is very important to apply the basic rules of Tajweed and to rectify the mistakes while reciting the Quran. Those people who are living in an area where Masjid and Madrasah are not available nearby nor Qari are available they can join online Quran learning classes and can use the mobile application to improve their Tajweed. In short, every Muslim should learn a basic level of Tajweed to avoid basic mistakes that change the meaning of the verse.